Spraying of Mango for Control of Fruit Flies in Khartoum State

By Esam Eldin Bashir Mohamed Kabbashi, Osamn Elhaj Nasr, Sulafa Khalid Musa and Salah Eldeen Abbas Ali.

Published by Food Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal

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Two insecticides, Aim® 10% [α – cypermethrin 10% {Cyano(3 – phenoxyphenyl) methyl 3 – (2, 2 – dichloroethenyl) – 2, 2 – dimethyl – cyclopropanecaboxylate}] and Brigade® [entomopathogenic fungi insecticide contains 1 X 1000000000 spores of three entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Metahrizium anisopliae and Verticillium lecanii)], were sprayed at three dose rates to control fruit flies on two mango cultivars (Dr. Knight and Dibsha) for two seasons (2009 and 2010). Three sites were sprayed in 2009 [Kadaro (30 Km North of Khartoum centre); Elbagair (50 Km South of Khartoum centre) and Elsaggay (50 Km North of Khartoum centre)], however, only Kadaro mangoes were sprayed in 2010. The results obtained reflected that both insecticides, at all dose rates used, significantly reduced fruit fly infestation in mango fruits of both cultivars sprayed and in the two test seasons at Kadaro, whereas no infestation was reported in the other two sites in both sprayed and the untreated control mangos. This phenomenon may be attributed to the absence of guava trees, which are considered as reservoirs for about four fruit flies species (three Ceratitis spp. and Bactrocera invadens Drew Trusta and White) and a coleopteran (Carpophilus hemipterus L.), in those areas. However, the residue analyses for Aim® 10% revealed zero and figures far less than the safety level recommended in the Codex Alimentarius (0.2 ppm). The outcome of this experiment advocate using such insecticides for the control of mango fruit flies and a safe mango production.

Keywords: Mango, Aim®, Brigade®, Fruit Flies, Residue

Food Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp.9-20. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 550.646KB).

Prof. Esam Eldin Bashir Mohamed Kabbashi

Associate Research Professor, Grain Technology Department, Food Research Center, Ministry of Science and Technology, Khartoum North, Khartoum, Sudan

I am working on the study and control of post-harvest pests in fruits and cereals. My work focuses on the control of Tribolium castaneum in grains and flour, in addition to a thorough work on the study and control of insect pests in mangos and guavas. The Tribolium research includes use of temperature, variety resistance, gamma irradiation, etc., whereas the research on fruit flies includes cooling, hot water, laser, ultrasound, fruit color and size, storage period and other pre-harvest treatments such as spraying of soft and biological insecticides.

Osamn Elhaj Nasr

Associate Research Professor and Former Director, Alternatives for Chemical Insecticides Section, Institute of Environment and Natural Resources, National Council for Research, Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Osamn Elhaj Nasr is working on the efficacy of biological and botanical insecticides.

Sulafa Khalid Musa

Research Professor Doctor, Post-harvest Physiology Department, Food Research Center, Khartoum North, Khartoum, Sudan

I have been a post-harvest physiologist for more than 40 years. I have been participating in all the research projects in the department throughout my period of attendance in the section. I have also produced some books, manuals and publications, some of which are international. Now I am the editor-in-chief of the Sudan Journal of Food Science and Technology.

Salah Eldeen Abbas Ali

Head Department & Scientific Researcher, Toxicology Section, National Chemical Laboratories, Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Salah Eldeen Abbas Ali is in charge of all the analyses in the toxicology laboratory of the National Chemical Laboratories, Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan. Abbas has also conducted a lot of research in this area, including mycotoxins as well as the insecticides residues.